úterý 29. března 2016

Soudní novinky 13/16 (Soudci na doživotí?)

Velikonoční drobky:
  • Měla by se omezit funkční obodí soudců amerického Nejvyššího soudu? NYTimes: Could Term Limits Ease Fights Over Supreme Court Nominees? ("Some say if the Supreme Court justices' life tenure was ended, each confirmation fight would be less fraught and contentious.")
  • Social Rights in USA state Law ("The Illinois Supreme Court holds that scaling back future pension benefits for Chicago’s city workers while requiring them to pay more is unconstitutional.")
  • Jakup Krasniqi (a former speaker of the Kosovo parliament and a former spokesman of the KLA): Kosovo tribunal must investigate Serb crimes
  • Otmar Philipp: ECJ rules against pro-sugar advertising ("Should companies such as German firm Dextro Energy be allowed to advertise the sugar content of their products in order to promote physical performance-enhancing qualities? The European Court of Justice (ECJ) has said no. (..) Dextro’s advertising only highlighted the positive effects of sugar consumption, without providing any information on the hazards. As a result, the Court accepted the Commission’s rationale for not admitting it into law.")
  • French journalist Florence Hartmann jailed by war crimes tribunal ("Former Le Monde correspondent detained in the Hague during wait for verdict of Radovan Karadžić, for revealing Srebrenica massacre information in book.")

pondělí 21. března 2016

Soudní novinky 12/16 (Poláci se soudí)

Opět trochu osekaněji:
  • Olaf considers court action against EU commission. 
  • Moment of truth in Polish constitutional dispute
  • The Economist:The Supreme Court delivers a win for gay adoption ("The outcome of V.L. v E.L. was apparently obvious to all 8 justices. Normally, after the Court grants an appeal it invites written briefs and holds oral arguments during which lawyers present their positions in a one-hour hearing. Not so in this case. The justices skipped the briefing and argument phases, granting certiorari and reversing the Alabama Supreme Court in one decisive fell swoop. This amounts to an embarrassing rebuke. It also sends a signal to judges nationwide that seeking legally dubious ways to attack gay rights will not be tolerated by the Supreme Court, even by the three surviving conservative justices who dissented from last year’s same-sex marriage ruling."). 
  • Jeremy Waldron: On the Supreme Court Battlefield (recenze nového dílka Casse Sunsteina).

neděle 13. března 2016

Soudní novinky 11/16 (Jeptišky a antikoncepce)

Po turné v Sheffieldu a Oxfordu aspoň osekaně:
  • Starší, ale zajímavý článek: Paul Gowder: Is It Wrong to Make the Supreme Court an Election Issue?
  • Americký Nejvyšší soud bude řešit další problém v dynamicky se rozvíjející problematice - rovnost vs. náboženská svoboda (Zubik v Burwell).
  • NYTimes: Polish Court Strikes Down Law Limiting Its Powers, Inflaming a Crisis ("The right-wing government of Poland said it would ignore a ruling by the Constitutional Tribunal, the only court empowered to review national laws.")
  • NYTimes: Supreme Court Restores Visitation Rights to Lesbian Adoptive Mother ("The court ruled that the Alabama Supreme Court had erred in refusing visitation because it disagreed with Georgia laws allowing same-sex couples to adopt.")
  • The Spanish Supreme Court Confirms Corporate Criminal Liability.
  • Velká věc z Benátské komise: Opinion on amendments to the Act of 25 June 2015 on the Constitutional Tribunal of Poland, adopted by the Venice Commission at its 106th Plenary Session (Venice, 11-12 March 2016). 
  • Pár zajímavostí z Lucemburku: Case C-431/14 P Greece v Commission (The Court confirms the obligation on the Greek State to recover from Greek farmers unlawful State aid of €425 million paid as a result of adverse weather conditions); C-179/15 Daimler AG (Former authorised Daimler dealers are not responsible for advertisements which, despite their efforts to have them removed, continue to associate their name with the trade mark ‘Mercedes-Benz’ on the internet Furthermore, Daimler cannot require those dealers to take steps to remove such advertisements from the internet where they have not been ordered.)

čtvrtek 10. března 2016

Výroční zpráva CFIUS a čínské investice

Ministr financí v sobotních Lidovkách vcelku s klidem odmítl dotírání redaktorů, kteří se ho ptali na potenciální rizikovost čínských investic v ČR s ohledem na národní bezpečnost. Podle ministra je to sice trochu nemilé, ale stejně s tím nemůže nic dělat. A má pravdu. Například v Německu, USA nebo Číně sice existují formální mechanizmy pro kontrolu zahraničních investic z hlediska národní bezpečnosti, v ČR však nikoliv.

O americkém výboru CFIUS, který zahraniční investice v Americe posuzuje, jsem na JP už psal (zde a zde). Nedávno vyšla neutajená verze výroční zprávy CFIUS (zde PDF), která se zabývá činností výboru do roku 2014. Co se ve zprávě píše?

Víc na JP.

neděle 6. března 2016

Soudní novinky 10/16 (Thomas se zeptal!)

Tentokrát zával z US:
  • A svět se zachvěl... "Justice Clarence Thomas Asks Questions in Supreme Court for First Time in 10 Years".
  • Cass R. Sunstein: The Supreme Court Doesn't Need a Hero Right Now.
  • N.Y. judge backs Apple in encryption fight with government: "The U.S. government cannot force Apple Inc (AAPL.O) to unlock an iPhone in a New York drug case, a federal judge in Brooklyn said on Monday, a ruling that bolsters the company's arguments in its landmark legal showdown with the Justice Department over encryption and privacy."
  • NYTimes: Court Hears Suit Against U.N. on Haiti Cholera Outbreak ("A legal battle by Haitian cholera epidemic victims to hold the United Nations accountable reached its highest level in an American court on Tuesday.")
  • Wow: A Judge’s Message to the Xenophobes: "A federal district judge in Indianapolis (..) blocking the attempt by Gov. Mike Pence of Indiana to cut off federal resettlement funds for Syrian refugees who had passed a vetting process that took up to two years. Mr. Pence’s order was unconstitutional and “clearly discriminates” against Syrians compared with other refugees, (..). The judge found that Mr. Pence’s move to withhold resettlement funds was “in no way” justified by his claim that his main concern was the safety of Indiana residents. The ruling delivered a jolt of reality to the xenophobic politics now inflaming the presidential primary campaign. The state was forced to concede that it does not really have the authority to bar refugees from crossing into Indiana, a concession that no Republican governor was willing to make in the states-rights bombast of last fall. Mr. Pence had simply cut off the funding the refugees were entitled to — a tactic the judge excoriated. “This is essentially a policy of punishing Syrian refugees already in Indiana in the hopes that no more will come,” she wrote."
  • Na Českou justici příčetný článek (Pavel Rychetský: Není správné, aby menšina znemožnila a trvale blokovala zákonodárný proces) s pikoškou na závěr. 
  • V Reflexu vyšel rozhovor s emeritním ÚS-soudcem Stanislavem Balíkem, bohužel, jen placený přístup
  • SD: Judgment in Joined Cases C-443/14 and C-444/14 Kreis Warendorf v Ibrahim Alo and Amira Osso v Region Hannover: "The Court of Justice delivers a ruling on the relationship between the freedom of movement of beneficiaries of international protection and measures intended to facilitate their integration. A place-of-residence condition may be imposed on beneficiaries of subsidiary protection if they face greater integration difficulties than other non-EU citizens who are legally resident in the Member State that has granted such protection."
  • US: "Advocates of low-cost housing scored a legal victory Monday when the U.S. Supreme Court left intact a ruling by California’s highest court allowing cities and counties to require builders to include a percentage of affordable units in each new development." 
  • High Stakes for Supreme Court Arguments on Abortion Case: "Since 2011, more than 288 abortion restrictions have been passed on the state level, which means that more than a quarter of all abortion restrictions passed in the 43 years since since Roe v Wade have been enacted in the last five years. Those restrictions are part of a successful strategy by anti-abortion lawmakers: instead of focusing on thorny questions about when life begins, they focus on concerns about women’s health to put restrictions on abortion clinics, such as requiring them to have doctors with admitting privileges at nearby hospitals."
  • A k tomu samému: Women Justices Defend Abortion Providers in Supreme Court Oral Arguments. 
  • A do třetice: Supreme Court Blocks Abortion Restriction in Louisiana ("The Supreme Court on Friday temporarily blocked the enforcement of a Louisiana abortion restriction that would have left the state with only one doctor that performs abortions, just days after it heard a challenge to a similar law in Texas."). NYT: "Opponents say the 2014 law would leave the state with only one clinic, while Louisiana officials say things are not that dire."
  • Breivik si stěžuje na nelidské podmínky ve vězení.
Celý příští týden jsem pracovně pryč, tudíž osud novinek zůstává nejistý.

Obr.: George Arents Collection, The New York Public Library. Mr. Case.The Judge. Retrieved from http://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/510d47e4-4e67-a3d9-e040-e00a18064a99.